Overview and I am done!

So in the last blog review, we’re supposed to have an overview of all the topics we’ve learnt in the class.

a. Pink Washing

b. Media Effects

c. Self Regulation

d. Future of journalism

e. Universities in the digital age

f. Feudalization of the Internet

g. White Bread Media

h. Digital Social Inclusion Disability

i. Moderating the conversation

j. Hidden cost of media use

Even though it seems like a total different topics. But in fact, in my opinion, it is all connected. For example, future journalism. Even though it is obvious to see that citizen journalism today is pervading, but if a citizen journalist don’t hold a self regulation. It will not benefit anyone but to bring more trouble to the issues. It is very common today to have the emotion of citizen journalist to be included in the news that they are “reporting”. However, while having it to be reported, it is also common to have vulgar words included in the news. Or sometimes, words that humiliate certain parties. I’m not going too deep about that but if you want some examples, maybe you can consider checking the news reported in Facebook pre-election, during the election and post election of Malaysia.

In fact, these 10 topics serve like a node that connects the web from one to another. or maybe I should say it’s something like a spider web?

spider_web

Source @ http://www.atria.rs/images/content/pictures/spider_web.jpg

Either way, these are still relating it back to the topic of emerging the issues. Personally, I find the topic of digital social inclusion disability the best. People always take today’s technology for granted and did not consider if it is as user friendly to the disabilities as it is to us. Having this topic is like an eye opener for me to understand that sometimes things need to be consider from different perspective. This doesn’t only apply in that said topic but in the whole subject.

 

Learning can never end right?

 

E-Waste, We waste

“By 2007, between twenty and fifty million tons of electronic and electric waste (e-waste) were being generated annually, much of it via discarded cell phones, televisions, and computers.” (Maxwell & Miller 2012)

E-Waste

Source @ http://www.orinfor.gov.rw/images/news/ibimashini%20bishaje%20cyaneeee.jpg

“E-waste has mostly been procuded in the Global North (Australasia, Western Europe, Japan and the United States) and dumped in the Global South (Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe, Southern and Southeast Asia, and China) ” (Maxwell & Miller 2012)

China E-Waste

Source @ http://img-fotki.yandex.ru/get/4812/121673331.1/0_52511_4386653a_XL.jpg

Individual often think how advance we can be but never think of the question on the “eliminated products”. Try watching this video

 

It shows how much they are paying to do this job. In my opinion, it is not fair when we’re the ones using but they are the ones suffering. The fume produce (leads, cadmium and mercury and even high toxic dioxins and furans), harms one’s health and even the surrounded area. Some that are making a living in that particular area have no choice but to bear with that condition because that is the only way to continue making money. On the other hand, what if they are not doing that? The waste will ended up piling up and takes up more spaces. It is not good in either way.

According to Nokia (n.d.), ‘only 9% of people recycle their old phones even though they’d be far better off recycled’. Today, individual only put their concerns on how technology can bring more convenience than on the environment impact. However, if this continues, it will no doubt harm more people. In my opinion, the manufacture companies should bear half of the cost to manage or recover the e-waste as it’s their product that is being disposed.

Not only that, according to Call2Recycle (n.d.), ‘44% of the people say they don’t know how or where to recycle old technology’. Hence, the manufacture company should as well, educate the consumer to dispose these old devices in the right way and at the right place. This could help to reduce a lot of e-waste. For instance, Apple is now having a recycle program whereby they in charge of collecting the Apple-branded waste electronic devices. For more information, click here. Similarly, manufacturers can collaborate with Greenpeace to launch a program whereby to encourage the customer to bring back the device manufactured by them, and in return, gives the customer some rebates, be it in in the form of monetary or non-monetary.

Unlike normal waste, these e-wastes are harmful towards the communities and environment. Hence, actions need to be taken to solve this problem. As what it is mentioned by Greenpeace, these e-waste, could be handle in few different ways,

i) Reuse

ii) Recycle

iii) Export

Just a little action, can bring a healthier life to others. So, why not?

Recycle

Source @ http://thesustainablelawyer.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/e-waste-recycle.jpg

Pages I reference!

Apple n.d., Apple and the Environment, viewed 4 June 2013, http://www.apple.com/my/environment/

Call2Recycle 2012, Recycling surveys offer some surprising results – Waste & recycling news, viewed 4 June 2013, http://www.call2recycle.org/recycling-surveys-offer-some-surprising-results-waste-recycling-news/

Greenpeace n.d., Where does E-Waste go?, viewed 4 June 2013, http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/toxics/hi-tech-highly-toxic/e-waste-goes/

Maxwell, R & Miller, T 2012, Greening The Media, media release, viewed 4 June 2013, (online uow database)

Nokia n.d., About us: Sustainable mobile products, viewed 4 June 2013, http://www.nokia.com/global/about-nokia/people-and-planet/sustainable-devices/recycling/recycling/

Moderate your Words!

Did you hear about the Italian chef that died?

How would you answer to this question?

And let’s see how the others will answer.

969498_189683711188185_185760833_nSource @http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-7_t8Z-nSCz0/UZ_AyYwKbOI/AAAAAAAAAd4/2Ihlq0xeh8A/s640/.facebook_2010490012.jpg

Comments and feedbacks can play an important part in a post. In accordance to Couldry  (2009), ‘an interactive website is worth nothing unless someone is listening to the process of interaction, and as a result some impacts ensue’. Agree or not, sometimes, the post itself is not the interesting part but the comments are.

The picture I showed above, is one of the examples to support my statement above. One of the examples that is not controversial. However, not everyone posts something as funny as that is. Instead of these, the comments that are harsh, humiliating or even cross over the line touching some sensitive issues are even more common in the cyber space. And all these will eventually leads to severe consequences like…

fired

Source @ http://fbfights.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/fired.jpg

losing your job…

So what about moderating the comments? In the previous lecture, we were assigned to discuss the relationship between “regulation” and “participation”. Should we actually regulate the content on the internet, lecturer asked.

According to Trygg (2011), ‘we thought that public participation would be entertaining and informative, but above all, that it would create a conversation that would enhance the way we run our lives. In practice, any debate is as likely to end up as a shouting match as it is to turn into some kind of Socratic dialogue’

Personally, I think that there should be a limit to everything. It’s true that we should practice the freedom of speech today. But having too much freedom would eventually lead to some other consequences. Regulations such as limiting the frequency of posting or filter certain words before having the post posted are much required.  Not only that, if the comments somehow passed through the regulations and posted up online, there should be a way to flag/report it.

That being said, all these actions to regulate the content is not to limit what the Netizens trying to say but is to manage the “flow” of the world of cyber space.

So, moderating the comments? I’ll say yes.

Speak no evil. hear No evil. Look no evilSource @ http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-XBxmABpP9Dc/T4726eUo9yI/AAAAAAAAGyQ/tLcRg7lV9uo/s1600/Speak+no+evil.+hear+No+evil.+Look+no+evil.jpg

Pages I reference! 

Couldry, N 2009, Rethinking the politics of voice, Continuum Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 579-582, (uow online database)

Trygg, S 2011, Is comment free?: Ethical, editorial and political problem of moderating online news, viewed at 30 May 2013, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/polis/files/2012/01/IsCommentFree_PolisLSETrygg.pdf

What happens when white bread + media?

When we’re in the media industry, one of the most common topics to be discussed is definitely the stereotypes, discrimination and media representation. Even until today, there are still a lot of issues rise upon this topic. So, what is this commonly called? We called it the white bread media.

White Bread

Source @ http://media.lolwall.co/c/2013/02/white-bread-by-david-olenick_259915-600x.jpeg

The Help

Media always emphasize a lot on skin colors and frame certain idea to the audiences. The most commonly seen examples are the portrayal of African American. In fact, I’m quite sure everyone did came across plenty of movies that touches on this topic isn’t it? Movies like Rush Hour where they have lines of stereotyping the African American, The Help where they discriminate the black women, Disney movies like Cinderella, Snow White that have the media representation of female.

Source @ http://peterviney.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/the_help01.jpg

According to Schilling (2013), women are still surprisingly being under represented in media. ‘Despite recent critical successes of films featuring female leads (The Hunger Games, Brave, Beasts of the Southern Wild) and the fact that women ages 12 and over are 51 percent of moviegoers, the study found that women on the big screen remain under-utilized.’

What about discrimination? Let’s look into the advertisement. Where they use the skin color to promote the product.

Another example is from Mercedes-Benz where they portray blondes are not intelligent enough to understand the situation

What do you think about this?

According to Dreher (forthcoming 2014),

‘Public debates about ‘white bread media’ remind us just how much media matter. And media matter because they do not merely reflect, but are also players in, key public debates, providing representation and frameworks which shape understandings and action.’

In support with that statement, it is clear to see that media actually have a role in ‘educating’ the public. Personally, I do very much agree to the statement above. This is because a media representation means a lot to a person that have zero knowledge towards that certain issue. Just in accordance with 123Helpme.com (n.d.), ‘with such a strong hold on modern society, mass media have been able to shape popular culture and often influence public opinion.’ For example, if one is totally clueless about Jewish and came across a movie portraying all Jewish to be big nose, obsessed with money and arrogant (these are just plain examples! No hard feelings), he/she would probably believe it. But that is not the case about Jewish. No one should be stereotype or frame with certain qualities just because of their skin color/race/religion. That is why I agree that media is the player and educator to the audience.

Not only that the media representation or portrayal of it shapes one’s perception. The wording media use is important as well. Again, a word can change the meaning of the whole sentence. Phrases like “I” “They” “We” “Them” always made the readers to draw a circle and make the line clear in between the few parties. What’s more, if you’ve notice, not only that the movie and advertisements are misrepresenting certain parties, even the news articles are! If you Google about it, you can definitely get plenty of examples of misrepresentation of blacks in news article. One of the examples is the incident of Hurricane Katrina. The reporter of the incident ‘refers to white victims clinging to life as “survivors” and “residents,” while African-American victims doing the same things are called “looters” and “criminals”‘ (Jones 2005). Black Loots White Finds

Source @ http://www.islandmix.com/backchat/attachments/f11/30957d1130004597-pepperpot-real-cool-stuff-image002.jpg

Now, do you agree with me that media plays a very important role in shaping ones’ idea?

Is there anyway to stop this white bread media? Yes there are, just tell the plain truth will be. ‘If media were encouraged to present products in ordinary situations by ordinary people, there would be fewer negative effects as a result’ (123Helpme.com n.d.). Government, in this case should play a very big part to control the content of flow. If the content of any media was found with misrepresentation or discrimination, it should be take off in no time.

However there is one argument whereby media portrayal will not shape a person’s perception. To quote Sizemore and Milner (2004),

‘the most striking finding of the present research is that media use among Hispanics does not have a consistently significant effect on their tendency to perceive discrimination against the subgroups.’

It is said to be more likely to be linked with the personal experience. Indeed, there are statistics to support their argument yet I do not find it too convincing. As off today, fact that the society are more and more attached to the new media, the chances of exposing to these medium that holds stereotypical views are getting bigger, especially to the Generation Y. They are so attached with the media and tend to believe in everything it conveys. Thus, I stand strong on the point whereby white bread media is shaping one’s perception.

After all, misrepresentations of media, stereotypes and discrimination of media not only shape a perception of a person, it also humiliated certain parties. Do you agree with me?

Pages I Reference!

123Helpme.com n.d.,  Negative Effects of False Media Images, viewed 16 May 2013, http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=6396

Dreher, T (forthcoming 2014), White bread media, The Media and Communications in Australia eds. S Cunningham and S Turnbull, Allen and Unwin

Jones, V 2005, Black People “Loot” Food…White People “Find” Food, viewed 16 May 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/van-jones/black-people-loot-food-wh_b_6614.html

Schilling, M 2013, Surprise! Women are still under-represented in media, viewed 16 May 2013, http://msmagazine.com/blog/2013/02/25/surprise-women-are-still-under-represented-in-media/

Sizemore, DS & Milner, WT 2004, ‘Hispanic Media Use And Perceptions of Discrimination: Reconsidering Ethnicity, Politics, and Socioeconomics’, The Sociological Quarterly, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 765-784, (online UOW database)

Disabilities and Technology

Do you have a disability?

Quoting a line from my lecturer, ‘everyone has a disability towards something’. Which I truly agree. We all have disability/disabilities in some ways. Some might have difficulties to talk in front of the crowd, some might be a camera shy, some might have problem understanding words…

So, now that the digital world is so advanced, does it help these individual in any ways? For example, almost everyone has a smartphone with them now. But what about the person who is blind? or a person who is deaf? Is the device user friendly to them?

According to Goggin and Christopher (2007), ‘The intimate link between technology and disability is found in a wide range of technologies adopted, consumed and used by people with disabilities, who do so in unexpected and innovative ways, often unforseen by the designers and promoters of such technologies.’

From there, you can see that the people with disabilities actually have the ability to use these devices. Understanding such market, the technology engineering as well is working something out. It’s true that when these smart devices first develop, they did not concern much about the disabilities. According to Vesperman (2010),

Professor Goggin says the first iPhone released was inaccessible to many users with disabilities. These included:
It reduced the potential market for the iPhone
It was possibly a breach of disability discrimination legislation
Apple had a well-deserved reputation for taking accessibility seriously in its computer operating systems.

However, today they have overcome the problem and started to be more concern of them. More and more applications (a.k.a. apps) are designed specially for the individuals with disabilities. For example, there are a series of apps that are designed for the individuals who are blind or visually impaired. A talking map that can be your navigator, determine the value of the cash or coin by a touch on the apps, or even a color detector apps. For more introduction of apps, you can click HERE. Not only that, there are also special apps specially for hearing impaired or speech impaired individuals. According to MyChildWithoutLimits (n.d.), a “Speaking Pad” was developed for ‘users of these technologies to enter data into their cell phone and then make information available through speech output.’ These enable them to be able to communicate at daily basis.
Business on a laptop

Not only that, through the virtual world, it even give individual with disability a “second world”. Maybe, in reality, they are impaired. But when it goes to the virtual world, everyone is the same. One cant see others that is behind the screen, you can be anyone you want. For example Niels Schuddenboom, who faces difficulties in walking, have found his “second life” in the virtual world. Second Life is a virtual world with 3D graphics that enable one to create their personalised avatar. It helps him to feel different and what’s more he can avoid the way people treats him. According to Cassidy (2007), he said. “In real life, due to my wheelchair and lack of physical coordination, people often regard me as intellectually as well as physically disabled.”

Indeed, it is always not a good idea to be too dependent on the virtual world. But in special cases like this, not only that the virtual world helped him to find a place that can be accepted like a normal individual but also gain one’s confidence back. Maybe it might be treated as a way to run away from the reality, but to think that it helped many to feel better and the feel to have a new life in that platform, I think it balanced everything.

Now that more and more advance technology can be create, sooner or later there will be even more devices or applications that can help the individuals with disability to be better and make things more convinient. Maybe to overcome the stage fright, or camera shy or even overcome the barrier to talk to strangers? Who knows what will happen next time right?

So here’s a video of how they uses the technology and helps the disable people. This was uploaded 2 years ago. Even 2 years ago, technology engineers starts to concern about them and try to make the phone more user friendly. What about now?


Pages I reference!

Cassidy, M 2007, ‘Flying with disability in Second Life’ , viewed 9 May 2013, http://www.eurekastreet.com.au/article.aspx?aeid=2787

Goggin G & Christopher N 2007, ‘The business of digital disability’, The Information Society: An International Journal, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 159-168, viewed 9 May 2013, (online UOW Database)

MyChildWithoutLimits n.d., ‘Smart Phones for the Disable Student ‘, viewed 9 May 2013, http://www.mychildwithoutlimits.org/plan/assistive-technology/smart-phones-for-the-disabled-student/

Vesperman, A 2010, ‘iPhone accessibility criticised’ , viewed 9 May 2013, http://www.divine.vic.gov.au/main-site/tech-talk/mobile/iphone-accessibility-criticised;storyId,2265%E2%80%98The

The Wall Garden

As the Internet attaches to our life more (to the extent that we need to use the net almost everyday), there are more and more problems occurred. Today, everyone can distribute whatever content they want it to be on the Internet. Totally free of charge. According to Zittrain (2008), ‘This scenario exhibits generativity along the classic Libertarian model: allow individuals the freedom to express themselves and they will as they choose. We are then free to read the result’. Yet, because it is getting more and more widespread, the platform needs to do something to control the flow of content. Hence, there comes in the wall garden.

Image

Source @ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Perceton_wall_garden_door_and_pineapple.JPG

Wait, no. Not this.

According to Rouse (2005), ‘a walled garden is an environment that controls the user’s access to Web content and services.’ It controls what they wants the user to see/read/listen/watch. The best example could find is the ‘Great Firewall of China’. They have a strict government control in terms of the content flow in the Internet. Reason why it is named as the “great firewall” is because the contents are all watching by the government. Netizens in China have no access to certain websites such as Facebook because the government can’t control the flow of information in there. Thus, they will make sure the Netizens will have zero contact with the controversial and sensitive issue by limited their access of Internet.

As a discussion went through in class, I was also told that there are also certain keywords that can’t lead you to the result you wanted. Or maybe put it this way, there are certain keywords that leads you to pages they controlled. If you google about it, there are a list of restricted keywords by China website listed down. In another words, it means if the netizen were to search for those keywords, it will direct them to only the information the government wants the netizen to know. So are we still free from knowing everything?

Image

Source @ http://www.appsmylife.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Restriction.jpg

Another threat to the freedom on the Internet is tethered appliances. It controls the information flows in devices. According to Arthur (2012), he said that

“We care little about the devices we’re using to access the net … we don’t think of that as significant to its future the way we think of [direct censorship].”

The smartphone or any other Internet accessible-devices have as well control the amount of information that can be accessed. There are limited acess to certain sites as compare to a personal computer. Personally, I’ve tried that once whereby things that cant be searched from my phone is available on Google using my laptop. This shows that there are actually controls of information going on. However, the users are taking it for granted. They don’t think that it is important to fight for their rights and they don’t know that they are stepping more and more closer to a world that have restricted information flowing through the Internet.

I wonder, how it will be if we continue not bothering about this case. How long more to an Internet world that are full of controlled information?

Pages I reference!

Arthur, C 2012, ‘Walled gardens look rosy for Facebook, Apple – and would-be censors’, The Guardian, 17 April, viewed 1 May 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/apr/17/walled-gardens-facebook-apple-censors

Rouse, M 2005, Walled Garden, viewed 1 May 2013 http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/walled-garden

Zittrain, JL 2008, In the future of the internet and how to stop it, viewed 1 May 2013, http://futureoftheinternet.org/static/ZittrainTheFutureoftheInternet.pdf

It’s coming! Or it came?

Hello! Welcome to my blog. =) What am I doing here? Why am I doing here? Honestly, this is just an assignment blog that needed to be done so that I can score for one of my subjects. Hopefully for an A for this? Ha. So anyway, back to the topic, reason I asked those question is because I want to show you the fact that universities are no more just about notes from lecturer and textbooks. It’s going into the digital age!

Notes, assignments, tutorials, all can be done through the digital world. For example, I’m now in Malaysia, but thanks to the technology development, not only that I can get notes from my lecturer, but also from the lecturer from Australia. Sounds good? Not only that, now that we have a database for loads of journals, we don’t have to go through racks of books from the library anymore. This eventually make things to be done fast, easier and work produced in a better quality. At least, we don’t have to combine with the racks of books like the picture below. If you can spot that. =)

Image

source @ newyorker

According to Miller (2010), with the help of this advance technology,

 “Right now, anyone of modest intelligence and ambition can make his or her thoughts available via the Internet to a global audience instantaneously and at virtually no cost. “

Just like me. I typed a blog, I post my opinions, I share my views but all these cost me not even a single cent. What’s more it reach even more people than having to be published on a paper. Stated by Neylon (2012), he said

“Some key individuals can make a serious impact. Editors can start or move journals to open access principles, resigning from high-profit publishers if needed. Developers can create web-based tools like academia.edu or peeravaluation.org. Authors can publish directly in open access journals or at least ensure their work in available on their homepage or in free-to-read forms such as through the arXiv or PubMed.”

But is this all? Bringing universities to digital age is the wise choice?

When universities are brought into the digital age, the academics are searching for an alternative as well. No, of course they are not giving everything out for free! They spent months or even years to complete a research and do you think they going to just share it straight out? Well, undeniably, some did so. They shared it openly. But there are also academics that would try to get profit from their work done.

Have you ever notice that journal databases like JStor, Taylor & Francis, Ebscohost or more are charging for each article you requested? So, what happen next? If the student needs the information, they’ll need to pay for it. This eventually means, students are paying to gain knowledge. Fair? Not for me.

According to Arvanitakis (2012), he stated that he ‘see education as a cultural commons: something that we all share and can grow to expand creating a new form of biopolitical production.’ He also stressed that only by having the works to be shared openly can education step to a higher point.

So, having the same thought as the statement above, Aaron Swartz, the co-founder of RSS 1.0 took an action. According to Cai (2013), ‘Swartz was indicted in July 2011 by a federal grand jury for allegedly downloading millions of documents from JSTOR through the MIT network — using a laptop hidden in a basement network closet in MIT’s Building 16 — with the intent to distribute them.’

Image

Source @ heavy.com

His move, eventually helped a lot of students to get to the needed journals and articles however bought himself into trouble. He was charged and having too much people to talk about him, he at last could not take it and hung himself in his apartment.

Why this would even happen in the first place? It’s all because students are needed to be charged for a certain amount before they could retrieve the scholar article from the database. Personally, I think knowledge should not be something to be restrained by money. Students are already paying for their university fees that cost over thousands and why should they spend more on it? Indeed, you can argue that students can avoid getting articles that needed to be purchased. But does this means that, only people who are affordable for the papers have the rights to read the paper and gain knowledge?

No. At least not me.

There shouldn’t be a line in knowledge. It’s limitless.

So, what about universities in the digital age? I would say that it helps us a lot in terms of getting the assignment to be done better and faster, and to share the materials from partners of universities. But, it also showed us the clear reality of this world. Not everything is free. Even knowledge. Image

Source @ IndependantAustralia

Pages I reference!

Arvanitakis, J 2012, Education, commons, pirates and ninjas¸ viewed 24 April 2013, http://jamesarvanitakis.net/education-commons-pirates-and-ninjas/

Cai, A 2013, ‘Aaron Swartz commits suicide’, The Tech, 12 January, viewed 24 April 2013, http://tech.mit.edu/V132/N61/swartz.html

MacFarquhar, L 2013, ‘Requiem For A Dream’, The New Yorker, 11 March, viewed 24 April 2013, http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2013/03/11/130311fa_fact_macfarquhar

Miller, RE 2010, The Coming Apocalypse,Pedagogy, vol. 10, no. 1, pp143-151

Neylon, T 2012, Life after Elsevier: making open access to scientific knowledge a reality, The Guardian, viewed 24 April 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2012/apr/24/life-elsevier-open-access-scientific-knowledge?INTCMP=SRCH